The Plot to Kidnap America’s Sweetheart, Part 3

There may have been no corpus delicti and no overt act but Charles Z. Stevens, Claude Holcomb and Adrian Woods were going to be tried for conspiracy to commit kidnapping anyway.

kidnappers pic

The accusations against C.Z. were taking a toll on his wife. The sight of her husband behind bars was too much for her–she collapsed in the County Jail and had to be taken home.

While Pauline was getting over the initial shock of seeing C.Z. in jail, a Sheriff’s deputy had been attempting to serve Mary with a subpoena. Mary’s fame gave her privileges not enjoyed by mere mortals. The subpoena was supposed be delivered personally but the deputy was unable to get anywhere near the star. Finally, in frustration, he handed the summons to Mary’s secretary.  To ease judicial fears her attorney guaranteed her attendance in court if needed.

Mary Pickford conferring with defense attorney S.S. Hahn. [Photo courtesy of UCLA Digital Collection]

Mary Pickford conferring with defense attorney S.S. Hahn. [Photo courtesy of UCLA Digital Collection]

The trial was originally scheduled to be held in Department 17 in the Hall of Justice on Buena Vista Street, but it was deemed too small to accommodate the crowd that was expected to turn out to see Mary and Doug.  The trial was moved to the larger courtroom of Judge York on the eighth floor of the Hall of Records.

L.A. County Courthouse flanked by Hall of Records (L). [Photo courtesy of LAPL]

L.A. County Courthouse flanked by Hall of Records (L). [Photo courtesy of LAPL]

Attorneys on both sides began trying their cases in the press.  Some things never change.  S.S. Hahn told reporters that he had new evidence that he would reveal later, and the Deputy District Attorney announced that he was ready to unequivocally prove the State’s case.

Glen G. Gravatt, a police department stenographer and secretary to Chief of Detectives Home, was the first to take the stand. He read from notes he had taken while he was listening through a physician’s stethoscope under the door of the room in the Hayward Hotel where the conspirators were meeting. With the stethoscope he was able to eavesdrop on Stevens, Holcomb, Woods and another possible conspirator, Louis Geck (aka “Louis the Spider”), and he got an earful.

As Gravatt continued to listen and take notes Geck asked Claude “Fat” Holcomb what he’d do if Mary Pickford “…picked up a big .45″. Holcomb replied: “I’d have to shoot her just like anybody else, that’s all.”

In an effort to speed up the trial the defense attorneys agreed to combine their efforts and offer the same defense for each of the men simultaneously. The attorneys also agreed to divvy up the responsibilities: S.S. Hahn would conduct all the direct examinations, Public Defender Aggeler would handle the cross-examinations and John A. Holland would prepare the rebuttal.

Defense attorneys Vercoe, Holland, Hahn and Aggeler [Photo courtesy of UCLA Digital Collection]

Defense attorneys Vercoe, Holland, Hahn and Aggeler [Photo courtesy of UCLA Digital Collection]

The defense made a motion to acquit the defendants based on an interpretation of the laws governing conspiracy.  They argued that because no overt act had been committed the charges should be dropped and the men released. But the defense arguments didn’t pass muster and the trial went forward.

third degree

Failing to get the kidnapping charges dropped, S.S. Hahn then accused Detective Harry Raymond of beating confessions out of Stevens and Holcomb. Jurors leaned forward in their seats as Holcomb told his story:

“I was brought down to Chief Home’s office and Harry Raymond said to me, ‘Fat, we want a statement out of you and we want to get it free and voluntarily.'”

Holcomb continued:

“We went there (the movie studio) with Louie (aka The Spider) to see a friend of his about a job.  Then he (Raymond) struck me in the nose. I threw up my hand to protect my face and Mayer stopped me.  Mayer then took me to the wash bowl and washed the blood from my face and coat by using water and paper.  The George Home came in.  He looked at Raymond and smiled.  Then he went out and bought me some cigarettes.”Holcomb said that he had made and signed his confession because he was beaten up and because he was afraid that Raymond would “stomp the hell out of me every day until I did.”

Was there any truth to Holcomb’s accusations?  It’s difficult to say. During the 1920s it would not have been unheard of for a detective to smack a suspect around to gain a confession; but unfortunately for Holcomb and the others it was incumbent upon the defense to prove that the beatings had actually occurred–which they failed to do.

NEXT TIME:  Mary and Doug in court and the outcome of the trial.

The Plot to Kidnap America’s Sweetheart, Part 2

Los Angeles Police investigators had been following three men whom they felt sure were conspiring to kidnap either actress, and “America’s Sweetheart”, Mary Pickford, or the grandchildren of oil magnate Edward L. Doheny.

Mary_Pickford_-_Aug_1916_Motion_PictureCaptain Home and Detectives Harry Raymond and George Mayer of the LAPD had learned that at least one of the conspirators had recently purchased a gun. The officers followed C.Z. Stevens, Claude Holcomb and Adrian Woods to the Hayward Hotel  downtown and from an adjoining room they eavesdropped as the plot was discussed. The men had decided to take Mary Pickford, rather than the Doheny grandchildren, in part because they knew that they’d have an easier time grabbing Pickford off the street.

Their plan was ingenious. There was a Shriner convention in town and so the kidnappers were going to don Fezzes, decorate their car with banners and pretend to be fun-loving conventioneers. They would follow Mary when she left the studio and before she reached Pickfair they would force her car into a curb and grab her. They’d be armed, just in case there was any resistance, and Fairbanks would be contacted by letter. The goal was to walk away with $200,000.

Shriners,_1925

Los Angeles’ Shriner’s Arab Patrol in costume in the midst dance with people looking on, circa 1925 [Photo courtesy Wikipedia]

There was no way that the cops were going to allow three men, at least one of whom would be armed, to get anywhere near Pickford so they had to act fast.  Stevens and Holcomb were arrested outside of the studio and their co-conspirator,  Woods, was busted at his home in Alhambra.

Woods was the youngest of the gang and he confessed to his part in the plan immediately. Holcomb followed suit, with Stevens being the last domino to fall.pauline stevens

Pauline, Stevens wife of just one year, wouldn’t believe that her husband could be party to a kidnap plot, let alone be the “brains” of the operation. She said:

“Oh, it must be wrong; there must be some mistake–he couldn’t have done that!  We were pals, he was the best and most honorable of husbands.”

Pauline told a reporter from the Los Angeles Times that she and her husband had met on the battlefields of WWI–he was a lieutenant in the aviation corps and she was a Red Cross nurse.  It’s nearly impossible to conduct a romance during wartime, and Pauline and C.Z. lost touch. After the war Pauline settled in Los Angeles and eventually C.Z. did too. By a happy coincidence he located her in the city and the couple resumed their courtship, and then married.

Other than being occasionally moody and depressed, as were many veterans of the “Great War”, C.Z. was described by Pauline as being a model husband, ambitious and hardworking. Being willing to work doesn’t guarantee success and C.Z. had had some business reversals before he and Pauline reconnected. He had worked in a Mexican oil field for a Texas-based company and by the time he returned Dallas in 1921 he had saved $10,000. He used the money to invest in a gas station but the business tanked and C.Z. lost every dime.

When she was shown photographs of the other alleged conspirators she recognized Holcomb as a man C.Z. had employed as a truck driver a couple of years earlier in yet another failed business venture.

A man down on his luck, as C.Z. was, may have easily become desperate enough to commit a crime.

A special session of the grand jury was convened, and with three confessions in hand the district attorney asked for indictments. Mary Pickford, who was working on a new film, was too busy to attend the courtroom proceedings, but Doug was there. Fairbanks testified to having seen two of the three conspirators loitering outside the gates of the studio.

Detective Harry Raymond c. 1928 [Photo courtesy of LAPL]

Detective Harry Raymond c. 1928 [Photo courtesy of LAPL]

Captain Holmes and Detectives Raymond and Mayer each took the stand and identified the men and testified to the plot they had overheard.

The grand jury handed down three indictments–Stevens, Holcomb and Woods were held on $50,000 bond each.

The case was a complicated one because it appeared that corpus delicti had not been established. Corpus delicti is the principle that a crime must have been proven to have occurred before a person can be convicted of committing that crime.  Additionally, the men no overt act had been committed by the men.  Could they really be tried?

Pauline was taking no chances that her husband might be released on a legal technicality.  She hired a well-known local attorney, S.S. Hahn, to represent him.  The three conspirators, if tried and found guilty, could conceivably spend 50 years in prison. That’s hard time by anyone’s  measure.

NEXT TIME: The case against the kidnap plotters continues.